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Ancient Near East: Chapter 2? 1. ? Sumerian (3500 – 2340 BCE) ? Akkadian (2340 – 2180 BCE) ? Babylonian (1792 –1750 BCE) ? Hittite (16o0 – 1200 BCE) ? Assyrian (1000 – 612 BCE) ? Persia (559 – 331BCE) S.A.B.H.A.P (help yourself remember them in order!)? 2. Iraq and Turkey (all Iraq except Hittite, which is Turkey)? 3. KEY IDEAS: •Birth of art in the service of the state and religion •Objects and writing giveus 1st systematic record of human development •Buildings made for religion (ZIGGURATS)•Buildings made for the state (palaces) •Built of mud-brick, painted or tiled/stone covered•Large STELAI erected throughout Mesopotamia (commemorate rulers’ achievements)•Guardian figures (man-animal) protect site entrances •Assyrian lion reliefs- first organizednarrative art in history? 4. EVERYTHING Started in Mesopotamia!!! Wow! Writing Cities Organized ReligionOrganized Government Laws Agriculture Bronze Casting The Wheel! •Big population infertile river valley between Tigris and Euphrates rivers •City centers, urbanization •Groupsovertaking each other for control of area (layering of cultures)? 5. STELE OF NARAM-SIN From Sippar; found at Susa (present-day Shush, Iran). Naram-Sin r. 2254-2218 BCE. Limestone, height 6'6” •Kings used artists to help glorify their careers.•Artists make them look grand •Brought the gods to life •Sculpted narrative tales for legacy•Patron/Artist relationships form6. -wrote in CUNEIFORM -royal names on tablets and sculptures -permanent records ofbusiness -wedge-shaped script -laws were written down -tax records -first written an epic,“Gilgamesh” -narrative painting to illustrate stories7. CYLINDER SEAL = private communication between people CYLINDER SEAL AND ITSMODERN IMPRESSION From the tomb of Queen Puabi (PG 800), Ur (present-dayMuqaiyir, Iraq). c. 2600-2500 BCE. Lapis lazuli •written document is folded and sealed withstamp • is made of clay •pressed cylinder into clay •arrives with the seal unbroken = noone messed with your mail!8. INNOVATIONS IN ARCHITECTURE: •urbanization •buildings for a living, government, andworship •not much stone or wood- used baked mud bricks (cheap and sustainable) •builtZIGGURATS (tall, solid structures of mud bricks) •ZIGGURATS dominated the flat landscape9. INNOVATIONS IN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE: •clothed humans with anatomicalprecision •active figures (hunting, praying, rituals) •people are settled in cities = bigsculptures (lamassus) •palaces filled with large relief sculptures carved into stone •representanimals with human characteristics and emotions •trend to combine animal parts with thehuman head10. ? Development of Cuneiform ? Building of Ziggurats ? Small Scale Sculpture in marble,diorite, hammered gold and lapis lazuli ? The writing of Gilgamesh11. Votive Figures from Tell Asmar(Iraq c. 2900 – 2600 BCE), limestone, alabaster, andgypsum (biggest one is 30” high)12. Can you describe their characteristics?13. •different heights = hierarchy of scale •men: bare chest, skirt, beard in ripple pattern, belt•women: dress draped over one shoulder •inscription on back- “it offers prayers” •figures heldcups or branches in their hands • folded in prayer •huge eyes in awe •staring at thegod(s) •arms and feet cut away from body •represent real people •praying to god Abu?? 14. • 2 sides: war and peace • historical narrative • part of a soundbox for a musicalinstrument? • figures have broad frontal shoulders, body in profile • emphasized eyes,eyebrows, and ears • repetition of forms • horses placed behind each other to suggest depth• organized- reads bottom to top Standard of Ur, c. 2600 BCE, panel inlaid with shell, lapislazuli, and limestone? 15. • hierarchy of scale • Sumerian king ½ head taller • came down from his chariot toinspect captives • enemies nude to suggest defeat and debasement < peace < war


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