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Energy Innovation Needed to Reduce Dependence on Foreign Oil, Save Money Foreign Oil Dependence, 2016 From Opposing Viewpoints in ContextThe Pew Charitable Trusts is a global nonprofit public policy organization. Its mission is to improve public policy, inform the public, and invigorate civic life.The US Department of Defense (DoD) is hugely reliant on fossil fuels for its operations, and thus can be strongly affected by increases in the cost of fuel. This makes the DoD dependent on foreign oil and foreign price manipulation. One way to decrease this dependence is through the development of alternative fuels, especially biofuels. Congress has threatened to pass legislation preventing the use of biofuels by the DoD. This is unwise and would threaten national security. In 2012, military and civilian leaders presented a letter to Congress and President Barack Obama stressing the importance of using clean energy.The Pew Project on National Security, Energy, and Climate today [July 24, 2012] released a letter signed by more than 350 veterans, including retired generals and admirals, as well as former ArmedServices Committee chairmen Sen. John Warner and Rep. Ike Skelton, urging the president and Congress to support the Pentagon’s initiatives to diversify its energy sources, limit demand and lower costs. The letter stresses the importance of the military’s ability to deploy clean energy technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and strengthen our national security, energy independence, and economic security.Move to BiofuelsAs the world’s largest consumer of liquid fuels, the military is both becoming more energy efficient and working to test and certify advanced biofuels in its ships, planes, and vehicles. By investing in alternative fuels today, the Department of Defense (DoD) is positioning itself to take advantage of these new products when they become cost-competitive with conventional fuels. This second generation of “drop-in” biofuels is produced from domestic non-food-stock plant and biomass sources, requires no changes to current engine design, and provides the same or better performance than conventional fuels.The development of renewable energy sources is a national security, economic, and environmental imperative.“Today, it takes 22 gallons of fuel per soldier per day to support combat operations, a 175 percentincrease over the Vietnam War era,” said Phyllis Cuttino, director of the Pew Project on National Security, Energy, and Climate. “The national security community agrees that both the DoD and the nation as a whole must reduce their dependence on foreign oil. However, some in Congress are working to cripple the department’s ability to move forward on energy innovation with its advanced biofuels program. This would hurt DoD’s capacity to shield its budget from oil price shocks and ensure operational effectiveness.”For every $10 increase in a barrel of oil, the department pays an additional $1.4 billion annually—money that comes at the cost of operations and readiness. Some congressional amendments, if adopted, would bar DoD from purchasing or using alternative fuels and could also affect the fuels used to power unmanned vehicles for military operations.“The bottom line is that the four branches of our military need our nation’s full support to continue seeking energy solutions through innovation, as their predecessors have done for generations,” added Sen. Warner, a former Navy secretary as well as former chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. “Our nation’s energy security is linked to increasing the diversity of domestic sources of energy, both conventional and alternative, to lessen our reliance on foreign sources.”Renewable Energy and National Security“The development of renewable energy sources is a national security, economic, and environmental imperative,” Gen. Anthony Jackson, USMC [United States Marine Corps] (Ret.), said.“The next generation of Americans is deserving of our commitment to become less dependent on foreign fossil fuels.”Lt. Gen. John Castellaw, USMC (Ret.), added, “The U.S. military faces strategic, operational, and tactical vulnerabilities due to its reliance on foreign oil. Spikes in fuel costs lead to cuts in operations—reducing flying time, sailing time and training time, thereby reducing the military’s overall effectiveness. We should use emerging technologies to limit these vulnerabilities.”In its report “More Fight, Less Fuel,” the Defense Science Board noted: “DoD’s energy problems are not unlike those of the nation. Just like the nation, to reduce its energy risks, DoD must significantly improve its energy productivity and use renewable sources where possible…. As these technologies find their way into commercial products, they will also limit our national dependence on foreign oil.”Innovation has been a consistent priority and role for the U.S. military. The military’s leadership, cooperation with the private sector, and early adoption have been critical to the commercialization of many technologies such as semiconductors, nuclear energy, the Internet, and the Global Positioning System. Maintaining energy innovation, inside and outside the DoD, is critical to our national security.Further Readings BooksRobert Bryce Power Hungry: The Myths of “Green” Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011.Salvatore Carollo Understanding Oil Prices: A Guide to What Drives the Price of Oil in Today’s Markets. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley, 2011.Blake C. Clayton Market Madness: A Century of Oil Panics, Crises, and Crashes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.John H. Cushman Keystone & Beyond: Tar Sands and the National Interest in the Era of Climate Change. New York: InsideClimate News, 2014.Morgan Downey Oil 101. New York: Wooden Table Press, 2009.David Farber Taken Hostage: The Iran Hostage Crisis and America’s First Encounter with Radical Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.Ken G. Glozer Corn Ethanol: Who Pays? Who Benefits? Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute Press, 2011.Russell Gold The Boom: How Fracking Ignited the American Energy Revolution and Changed the World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.Richard Heinberg Snake Oil: How Fracking’s False Promise of Plenty Imperils Our Future. Santa Rosa, CA: Post Carbon Institute, 2013.Jan H. Kalicki and David L. Goldwyn, eds. Energy and Security: Strategies for a World in Transition. Baltimore, MD: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2013.Bill McKibben, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change. New York: Penguin Group, 2012.Francisco Parra Oil Politics: A Modern History of Petroleum. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2009.Andrew T. Price-Smith Oil, Illiberalism, and War: An Analysis of Energy and US Foreign Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.Jeremy Shere Renewable: The World-Changing Power of Alternative Energy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2013.Daniel Yergin The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World. New York: Penguin, 2012.Gregory Zuckerman The Frackers: The Outrageous Inside Story of the New Billionaire Wildcatters. New York: Portfolio, 2014.Periodicals and Internet Sources Richard Anderson “How American Energy Independence Could Change the World,” BBC, April 3, 2014. www.bbc.com.Jonathan Chait “The Keystone Fight Is a Huge Environmentalist Mistake,” New York, October 30, 2013.CNN Money “U.S. Could Be Energy Independent in Four Years,” April 15, 2015. www.money.cnn.com.Coral Davenport “New Federal Rules Are Set for Fracking,” New York Times, March 20, 2015.Scott Dodd “Fracking’s Hidden Toll on Rural America,” Salon, July 25, 2014. www.salon.com.Charles Homans “Energy Independence: A Short History,” Foreign Policy, January 3, 2012.Keith Johnson “Europe’s Energy Independence Drive Goes Off the Rails,” Foreign Policy, February 5, 2015.Brandon Keim “The Hot New Frontier of Energy Research Is Human Behavior,” Wired, June 9, 2014.Clifford Krauss “In the US, a Turning Point in the Flow of Oil,” New York Times, October 7, 2014.Barbara Lerner “American Energy Independence,” National Review, January 13, 2010.Ryan Lizza “The President and the Pipeline,” New Yorker, September 16, 2013.Jake Miller “GOP: Energy Independence Would Relieve Ukraine, ISIS Woes,” CBS News,September 20, 2014. www.cbsnews.com.Brad Plumer “The Cost of Wind and Solar Power Keeps Dropping All Over the World,” Vox, February 5, 2015. www.vox.com.Robert J. Samuelson “The U.S. May Become Energy-Independent After All,” Washington Post, November 14, 2012.Colin Schultz “We Don’t Need a Huge Breakthrough to Make Renewable Energy Viable—It Already Is,” Smithsonian, August 5, 2014.Bryan Walsh “The Myth of Energy Independence,” CNN, May 10, 2013. www.cnn.com.Washington Post “Ethanol Takes Policy Blow from the Environmental Protection Agency,” November 17, 2013.Kevin D. Williamson “The Truth About Fracking,” National Review, February 20, 2012.Eric Worrall “Shocker: Top Google Engineers Say Renewable Energy ‘Simply Won’t Work,’” WUWT, November 22, 2014. www.wattsupwiththat.com.Matthew Yglesias “North American Energy Independence: Who Cares?,” Slate, August 23, 2012. www.slate.com.Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2016 Greenhaven Press, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning.Source Citation Pew Charitable Trusts. “Energy Innovation Needed to Reduce Dependence onForeign Oil, Save Money.” Foreign Oil Dependence, edited by Noah Berlatsky, Greenhaven Press, 2016. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, http://link.gal egroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010319251/OVIC?u=oran95108&xid=ad7b896. Accesse d 11 Mar. 2018. Originally published as “Energy Innovation Seen As Needed to Reduce Dependence on Foreign Oil, Save Money,”, 24 July 2012.Gale Document Number: GALE|EJ3010319251

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